Volkswagen Group's net debt reached EUR 145,015 mil and accounted for 133% of equity at the end of 2017. The ratio is down 8.88% when compared to the previous year.
Historically, the firm’s net debt to equity reached an all time high of 229% in 2005 and an all time low of 104% in 2013.
When compared to EBITDA, net debt amounted to 4.03x at the end of the year. The ratio reached an all time high of 8.29 in 2009 and an all time low of 3.57 in 2013.