Which Country Invests the Most into Research & Development?

R&D Expenditures (As % of GDP) (%), 2018 or latest
Telcos & Hi-Tech | December 31, 2020
$2.99
Excel Sheet

Based on a comparison of 108 countries in 2018, Israel ranked the highest in R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP with 4.95% followed by South Korea and Switzerland. On the other end of the scale was Mauritania with 0.014%, Madagascar with 0.015% and Guatemala with 0.028%.

Average R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP reached 2.27% in 2018 in the World according to World Bank. This is 6.04 % less than in the previous year and 9.39 % more than 10 years ago.

Historically, average R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP reached an all time high of 2.27% in 2018 and an all time low of 1.94% in 2007. The average annual growth amounted to 0.380 % since 1996.

Data for more countries are available at R&D Expenditures (As % of GDP) indicator page.

R&D Expenditures (As % of GDP) Unit 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Austria % 2.91% 2.95% 3.08% 3.05% 3.13%
Belgium % 2.27% 2.33% 2.39% 2.46% 2.56%
China % 1.91% 2.00% 2.03% 2.07% 2.12%
Denmark % 2.98% 2.97% 2.91% 3.05% 3.10%
Finland % 3.42% 3.29% 3.17% 2.89% 2.74%
France % 2.23% 2.24% 2.28% 2.27% 2.22%
Germany % 2.87% 2.82% 2.87% 2.91% 2.92%
Israel % 4.16% 4.09% 4.17% 4.26% 4.51%
Japan % 3.21% 3.31% 3.40% 3.28% 3.16%
Netherlands % 1.92% 1.93% 1.98% 1.98% 2.00%
Norway % ... ... 1.62% 1.65% 1.71% 1.93% 2.03%
South Korea % 4.03% 4.15% 4.29% 4.22% 4.23%
Sweden % ... ... ... 3.28% 3.30% 3.14% 3.26% 3.27%
Switzerland % ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3.19% ... ... 3.37% ... ...
USA % 2.68% 2.71% 2.72% 2.72% 2.76%