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Volkswagen Group

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Volkswagen Group

Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Ducati, Lamborghini, SEAT, Porsche, Giugiaro and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania. Volkswagen means "people's car" in German. VW was originally founded in 1937 by the Nazi trade union. After WWII, the Volkswagen factory at Wolfsburg came under British control

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Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Ducati, Lamborghini, SEAT, Porsche, Giugiaro and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania. Volkswagen means "people's car" in German. VW was originally founded in 1937 by the Nazi trade union. After WWII, the Volkswagen factory at Wolfsburg came under British control and the factory survived by producing cars for the British Army instead, thanks chiefly to the protection of British Army Major Ivan Hirst. VW's turnaround was cemented with the introduction of key models in the 1970s, such as the Passat, Golf and Polo, which shared many characteristic defining features, as well as parts and engines. Following the acquisitions of Audi, Seat, and Škoda, VW moved upwards in the late 1990s as it acquired three luxury brands, Lamborghini, Bentley, and Bugatti

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summary Unit
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

income statement

Sales EUR mil
Gross Profit EUR mil
EBIT EUR mil
Net Profit EUR mil
ROE %
EBIT Margin %
Net Margin %
Employees
...                       159,337 192,676 197,007 202,458 213,292    
...                       51,820 64,661 67,693 70,735 71,569    
...                       11,271 11,498 11,671 12,697 -4,069    
...                       15,409 21,717 9,093 10,984 -1,370    
...                       27.5% 29.9% 10.6% 12.2% -1.54%    
...                       7.07% 5.97% 5.92% 6.27% -1.91%    
...                       9.67% 11.3% 4.62% 5.43% -0.642%    
                        501,956 549,763 563,000 583,000 604,000    

balance sheet

...                       253,769 309,644 324,333 351,209 381,935    
...                       148,129 196,583 202,141 220,107 236,548    
...                       105,640 113,061 122,192 131,102 145,387    
...                       63,354 81,825 90,037 90,189 88,270    
...                       190,415 227,819 234,296 261,020 293,665    
...                       89,179 122,306 115,671 130,314 145,176    
...                       101,237 105,513 118,625 130,706 148,489    
...                       4.36 4.21 3.57 3.91 8.02    
...                       119% 127% 104% 128% 142%    
... ...                     -8.98% -13.0% -0.633% -1.67% -1.97%    

cash flow

...                       8,500 7,209 12,595 10,785 13,679    
...                       -18,631 -19,484 -16,890 -19,099 -21,151    
...                       8,316 13,711 8,973 4,645 9,068    
...                       -1,815 1,436 4,678 -3,669 1,596    

valuation

...                       65,170 102,027 127,983 104,697 75,742    
...                       295 295 295 295 295    
                        104 163 197 180 142    
...                       52.2 73.6 30.8 37.2 -4.64    
...                       215 277 305 306 299    
...                       5.67 6.27 6.65 8.53 1.23    
...                       1.98 2.21 6.39 4.84 -30.7    
...                       0.483 0.587 0.645 0.589 0.476    
...                       5.47% 3.85% 3.38% 4.73% 0.867%    
... ...                     125% 40.9% -58.1% 20.8% -112%    
... ...                     30.0% 29.1% 10.0% 0.169% -2.13%    

Download Data
income statement Unit
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

income statement

Sales EUR mil
Cost of Goods & Services EUR mil
Gross Profit EUR mil
Staff Cost EUR mil
Other Cost EUR mil
EBITDA EUR mil
Depreciation EUR mil
EBIT EUR mil
Financing Cost EUR mil
Extraordinary Cost EUR mil
Pre-Tax Profit EUR mil
Tax EUR mil
Minorities EUR mil
Net Profit EUR mil
Dividends EUR mil
...                       159,337 192,676 197,007 202,458 213,292    
...                       107,517 128,015 129,314 131,723 141,723    
...                       51,820 64,661 67,693 70,735 71,569    
...                       23,854 29,503 31,747 33,834 36,268    
...                       10,726 10,546 9,625 7,413 19,714    
...                       17,240 24,612 26,321 29,488 15,587    
...                       5,969 13,114 14,650 16,791 19,656    
...                       11,271 11,498 11,671 12,697 -4,069    
...                       -7,655 -13,989 -757 -2,097 -2,768    
...                       0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000    
...                       18,926 25,487 12,428 14,794 -1,301    
...                       3,126 3,606 3,283 3,726 59.0    
...                       391 169 52.0 84.0 10.0    
...                       15,409 21,717 9,093 10,984 -1,370    
                        1,673 1,849 1,962 2,516 364    

growth rates

... ...                     25.6% 20.9% 2.25% 2.77% 5.35%    
... ...                     -17.0% 15.8% 3.30% -0.302% 35.7%    
... ...                     36.2% 42.8% 6.94% 12.0% -47.1%    
... ...                     57.8% 2.01% 1.50% 8.79% -132%    
... ...                     110% 34.7% -51.2% 19.0% -109%    
... ...                     125% 40.9% -58.1% 20.8% -112%    

ratios

...                       27.5% 29.9% 10.6% 12.2% -1.54%    
... ...                     10.4% 11.1% 4.09% 4.70% -0.542%    
...                       32.5% 33.6% 34.4% 34.9% 33.6%    
...                       10.8% 12.8% 13.4% 14.6% 7.31%    
...                       7.07% 5.97% 5.92% 6.27% -1.91%    
...                       9.67% 11.3% 4.62% 5.43% -0.642%    
...                       10.9% 8.51% 21.6% 22.9% -26.6%    
... ...                     -8.98% -13.0% -0.633% -1.67% -1.97%    
...                       4.36 4.21 3.57 3.91 8.02    

Download Data
balance sheet Unit
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

balance sheet

...                       148,129 196,583 202,141 220,107 236,548    
...                       31,876 59,265 64,648 73,754 83,344    
...                       22,176 59,158 59,243 59,935 61,147    
...                       3,410 23,935 23,730 23,577 23,646 ... ...
...                       105,640 113,061 122,192 131,102 145,387    
...                       27,551 28,674 28,653 31,466 35,048    
...                       10,479 12,876 11,133 11,472 11,132    
...                       18,291 18,488 23,178 19,123 20,871    
...                       253,769 309,644 324,333 351,209 381,935    
...                       63,354 81,825 90,037 90,189 88,270    
...                       5,815 4,310 2,304 198 210    
...                       190,415 227,819 234,296 261,020 293,665    
...                       89,179 122,306 115,671 130,314 145,176    
...                       44,442 63,603 63,822 72,370 79,193    
...                       4,055 9,050 7,894 4,774 4,433    
...                       101,237 105,513 118,625 130,706 148,489    
...                       49,090 58,485 53,208 62,098 66,645    
...                       16,325 17,268 18,024 19,530 20,460    
... ...                     18,893 18,410 18,360 17,075 25,788    
...                       253,769 309,644 324,333 351,209 381,935    

growth rates

... ...                     27.3% 22.0% 4.74% 8.29% 8.75%    
... ...                     30.1% 29.2% 10.0% 0.169% -2.13%    
... ...                     29.0% 37.7% -9.41% 22.9% 8.34%    
... ...                     21.5% 30.5% -4.14% 14.9% 8.46%    

ratios

...                       93,532 122,088 117,030 134,468 145,838    
...                       75,241 103,600 93,852 115,345 124,967    
...                       21,705 24,282 21,762 23,408 25,720    
...                       169,834 220,865 223,903 243,515 262,268    
...                       119% 127% 104% 128% 142%    
... ...                     -8.98% -13.0% -0.633% -1.67% -1.97%    

Download Data
cash flow Unit
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

cash flow

...                       15,409 21,717 9,093 10,984 -1,370    
...                       5,969 13,114 14,650 16,791 19,656    
... ...                     -3,143 -25,045 -13,668 -15,344 -2,295    
... ...                     -9,735 -2,577 2,520 -1,646 -2,312    
...                       8,500 7,209 12,595 10,785 13,679    
...                       -12,628 -10,493 -11,385 -12,012 -13,213    
...                       -6,003 -8,991 -5,505 -7,087 -7,938    
...                       -18,631 -19,484 -16,890 -19,099 -21,151    
                        -1,673 -1,849 -1,962 -2,516 -364    
... ...                     16,521 28,556 -5,058 17,438 11,370    
...                       8,316 13,711 8,973 4,645 9,068    
...                       -1,815 1,436 4,678 -3,669 1,596    

ratios

...                       24.0 24.4 20.6 20.7 19.0    
...                       93.5 81.8 80.9 87.2 90.3    
...                       55.4 49.2 50.9 54.1 52.7    
...                       62.1 56.9 50.6 53.8 56.6    
...                       21,378 34,831 23,743 27,775 18,286    
...                       72.4 118 80.5 94.1 62.0    
...                       1.43 1.38 2.45 1.91 2.30    
...                       -10,131 -12,275 -4,295 -8,314 -7,472    
...                       -21.6% -15.4% -4.45% -10.2% -11.3%    

Download Data
other data Unit
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

other data

ROA %
Gross Margin %
Employees
Cost Per Employee USD per month
Cost Per Employee (Local Currency) EUR per month
Staff Cost (As % Of Total Cost) %
Effective Tax Rate %
Enterprise Value (EV) USD mil
EV/EBITDA
EV/Capital Employed
EV/Sales
EV/EBIT
Capital Expenditures (As % of Sales) %
Profit From Abroad (As % Of Total) %
Price Per Vehicle Sold EUR
EBIT Per Vehicle Sold EUR
Net Profit Per Vehicle Sold EUR
Price Per Vehicle Sold (USD) USD
EBIT Per Vehicle Sold (USD) USD
Net Profit Per Vehicle Sold (USD) USD
Sales From Automotive EUR mil
Production of Vehicles vehicles
Sales of Vehicles vehicles
Sales of Vehicles At Home vehicles
Production of Vehicles (At Home) vehicles
Domestic Production (As % Of Total) %
Exports Of Vehicles vehicles
Exports (As % Of Total Vehicles Sold) %
Employees in Germany
Sales of VW Passenger Cars vehicles
Sales Audi Brand Group vehicles
Sales of Lamborghini vehicles
Sales of SKODA vehicles
Sales of SEAT vehicles
Sales of Bentley vehicles
Sales of Porsche vehicles
Sales of VW Commercial Vehicles vehicles
Sales of Scania vehicles
Sales of MAN vehicles
Sales in the UK vehicles
Sales in France vehicles
Sales in Italy vehicles
Sales in Spain vehicles
Sales in Russia vehicles
Sales in the Czechia vehicles
Sales in Poland vehicles
Sales in Turkey vehicles
Sales in South Africa vehicles
Sales in the USA vehicles
Sales in Mexico vehicles
Sales in Canada vehicles
Sales in Brazil vehicles
Sales in Argentina vehicles
Sales in China vehicles
Sales in India vehicles
Sales in Japan vehicles
Production of VW Passenger Cars vehicles
Production of Audi vehicles
Production of Lamborghini vehicles
Production of SKODA vehicles
Production of SEAT vehicles
Production of Bentley vehicles
Production of Porsche vehicles
Production of VW Commercial Vehicles vehicles
Production of Scania vehicles
Production of MAN vehicles
Production of VW China vehicles
Production of Golf vehicles
Production of Polo vehicles
Production of Jetta/Sagitar vehicles
Production of Passat/Magotan vehicles
Production of Tiguan vehicles
Production of Lavida vehicles
Production of Santana vehicles
Production of Bora vehicles
Production of Gol vehicles
Production of up! vehicles
Production of Touran vehicles
Production of Lamando vehicles
Production of Fox vehicles
Production of Saveiro vehicles
Production of Beetle vehicles
Production of Touareg vehicles
Production of Arteon/CC vehicles
Production of Caravelle/Multivan, Kombi vehicles
Production of Transporter vehicles
Production of Amarok vehicles
Production of Caddy vehicles
Production of Caddy Kombi vehicles
...                       6.80% 7.71% 2.87% 3.25% -0.374%    
...                       32.5% 33.6% 34.4% 34.9% 33.6%    
                        501,956 549,763 563,000 583,000 604,000    
...                       5,506 5,742 6,238 6,234 5,736    
...                       3,960 4,472 4,699 4,836 5,004    
...                       16.1% 16.3% 17.1% 17.8% 16.7%    
...                       16.5% 14.1% 26.4% 25.2% -4.53%    
...                       162,696 238,738 257,363 244,307 211,794    
...                       6.79 7.55 7.37 6.43 11.9    
...                       0.739 0.819 0.834 0.829 0.742    
...                       0.734 0.965 0.984 0.936 0.866    
...                       10.4 16.2 16.6 14.9 -45.4    
...                       7.93% 5.45% 5.78% 5.93% 6.19%    
...                       68.4% 75.2% 74.7% 75.0% 73.2%    
...                       19,057 20,619 20,252 19,816 21,308    
...                       1,348 1,230 1,200 1,243 -406    
...                       1,843 2,324 935 1,075 -137    
...                       26,496 26,474 26,884 25,542 24,426    
...                       1,874 1,580 1,593 1,602 -466    
...                       2,562 2,984 1,241 1,386 -157    
...                       142,092 172,822 175,003 177,538 183,936    
                        8,494,280 9,255,380 9,728,000 10,213,000 10,017,000    
                        8,361,290 9,344,560 9,728,000 10,217,000 10,010,000    
...                       1,153,070 1,052,400 1,187,000 1,247,000 1,279,000    
...                       2,640,000 2,321,000 2,458,000 2,559,000 2,681,000    
...                       31.1% 25.1% 25.3% 25.1% 26.8%    
...                       7,208,220 8,292,160 8,541,000 8,970,000 8,731,000    
...                       86.2% 88.7% 87.8% 87.8% 87.2%    
...                       196,000 237,000 255,397 269,627 275,857    
                        4,450,000 4,850,000 4,704,000 4,583,000 4,424,000    
...                       1,543,000 1,299,000 1,349,000 1,444,000 1,529,000    
...                       1,604 2,197 2,121 2,530 3,245    
                        690,000 727,000 719,000 796,000 800,000    
                        362,000 429,000 459,000 501,000 544,000    
                        7,402 9,186 11,000 11,000 11,000    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 62,000 155,000 187,000 219,000    
                        441,000 437,000 436,000 442,000 456,000    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...       80,108 67,000 80,000 80,000 78,000    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 24,750 134,000 140,000 120,000 102,000    
...                       408,869 399,388 454,400 510,481 521,345    
...                       299,330 263,317 245,926 249,311 252,530    
...                       244,953 188,323 176,231 190,671 207,821 ... ...
...                       212,549 169,017 173,893 203,870 235,139    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...         228,977 30,574 287,264 253,176 164,653    
...                       82,874 80,826 83,215 100,967 126,886    
...                       73,391 68,972 75,920 95,790 104,772    
... ... ... ...                 107,913 97,764 126,853 128,592 164,787    
...                       99,427 98,606 103,720 100,058 90,659    
...                       444,187 596,078 611,747 599,734 607,096    
...                       153,023 156,974 180,123 189,328 211,845    
...                       69,617 80,572 87,053 95,392 103,833    
...                       704,726 666,578 558,317 554,828 353,508    
...                       178,170 148,955 148,979 95,086 97,775    
...                       2,258,610 2,809,690 3,266,240 3,668,430 3,542,470    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...     111,689 114,084 92,561 70,656 69,323    
...                       71,729 82,078 100,535 104,218 91,152    
                        5,271,780 5,771,790 5,923,810 6,156,220 5,897,790    
                        1,343,200 1,466,060 1,605,380 1,800,620 1,827,800    
                        1,711 2,197 2,122 2,650 3,707    
                        901,665 943,412 932,067 1,049,680 1,037,050    
                        352,936 321,316 352,824 394,860 415,076    
                        7,593 9,107 10,876 11,033 10,888    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 63,684 165,808 203,097 234,497    
                        507,594 486,544 510,847 396,077 410,219    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...       84,057 66,930 82,854 82,208 79,346    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 23,717 124,304 141,211 116,072 100,825    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...     2,201,890 2,642,790 3,134,660 3,506,000 3,456,000    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 825,591 824,629 1,011,120 1,059,550    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 726,784 725,291 753,754 754,546    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 926,277 844,907    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 747,583 724,018    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 453,081 472,958 515,349 501,712    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 481,740 462,748    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 295,485 279,583    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 226,006 202,964    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 502,486 454,725 300,629 192,841    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 141,515 143,188 217,278 172,345    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 152,683 135,382 126,567 120,507    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3,080 103,573    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 197,823 164,763 106,991 85,161    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 96,420 75,397    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 107,939 109,517 91,464 64,035    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 77,635 70,861 63,741 59,190    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 85,591 56,796    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 94,336 96,341    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 83,947 82,509    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 69,695 81,019    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 71,535 76,048    
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 76,564 74,302    

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Volkswagen Group at a Glance

Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Ducati, Lamborghini, SEAT, Porsche, Giugiaro and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania. Volkswagen means "people's car" in German. VW was originally founded in 1937 by the

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Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Ducati, Lamborghini, SEAT, Porsche, Giugiaro and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania. Volkswagen means "people's car" in German. VW was originally founded in 1937 by the Nazi trade union. After WWII, the Volkswagen factory at Wolfsburg came under British control and the factory survived by producing cars for the British Army instead, thanks chiefly to the protection of British Army Major Ivan Hirst. VW's turnaround was cemented with the introduction of key models in the 1970s, such as the Passat, Golf and Polo, which shared many characteristic defining features, as well as parts and engines. Following the acquisitions of Audi, Seat, and Škoda, VW moved upwards in the late 1990s as it acquired three luxury brands, Lamborghini, Bentley, and Bugatti.

This report offers a summary of the company's performance in 1999-2012. You will find here all the key numbers from the company's balance sheet, income statement and cash flow on the annual basis.

In addition, the report provides information concerning Volkswagen Group's sales and market share on its key markets.

Volkswagen Group in Numbers

Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Ducati, Lamborghini, SEAT, Porsche, Giugiaro and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania. Volkswagen means "people's car" in German. VW was originally founded in 1937 by the

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Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Ducati, Lamborghini, SEAT, Porsche, Giugiaro and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania. Volkswagen means "people's car" in German. VW was originally founded in 1937 by the Nazi trade union. After WWII, the Volkswagen factory at Wolfsburg came under British control and the factory survived by producing cars for the British Army instead, thanks chiefly to the protection of British Army Major Ivan Hirst. VW's turnaround was cemented with the introduction of key models in the 1970s, such as the Passat, Golf and Polo, which shared many characteristic defining features, as well as parts and engines. Following the acquisitions of Audi, Seat, and Škoda, VW moved upwards in the late 1990s as it acquired three luxury brands, Lamborghini, Bentley, and Bugatti.

This excel file offers a summary of the company's performance in between 2000-2012 on the annual basis. You will find here all the key numbers from the company's balance sheet, income statement and cash flow and the main ratios related to the company's business.

In addition, the excel file provides a summary concerning Volkswagen Group's production and sales on its key markets and a brief valuation of company's shares.

Volkswagen Group stock traded at EUR 169 per share at the end 2017 translating into a market capitalization of USD 100,820 mil.

Since the end of 2012, the stock has appreciated by 3.66% implying an annual average growth of 0.721%.

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Volkswagen Group stock traded at EUR 169 per share at the end 2017 translating into a market capitalization of USD 100,820 mil.

Since the end of 2012, the stock has appreciated by 3.66% implying an annual average growth of 0.721%. In absolute terms, the value of the company fell by USD -1,207 mil.

At the end of 2017, the firm traded at price to earnings of 4.38x. Within the last five years, the multiple reached an all time high of 7.84x in 2016 and an all time low of -30.7x in 2015 with an average of -1.44x.

In terms of EV/EBITDA, the stock traded at 6.80x at the end of 2017. Since 2012, the multiple reached an all time high of 11.9x in 2015 and an all time low of 6.43x in 2014 with an average of 7.92x.

You can see all the company’s data at Volkswagen Group Profile, or you can download a report on the company in the report section.

Skoda Auto invested total of EUR 13,052 mil in 2017, down 0.760% when compared to the previous year. Historically, company's investments reached an all time high of EUR 15,978 mil in 2002 and an all time low of EUR 6,947 mil in

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Skoda Auto invested total of EUR 13,052 mil in 2017, down 0.760% when compared to the previous year. Historically, company's investments reached an all time high of EUR 15,978 mil in 2002 and an all time low of EUR 6,947 mil in 2010.

When compared to total sales, investments reached 5.66% in 2017, down from 6.05% seen in the previous year. This is compared to 5.92% seen on average in the last five years.

As far as Volkswagen Group's peers are concerned, Ford Motor Company invested EUR 7,049 mil, or 4.50% of its sales in 2017. The comparable figures for PSA Peugeot Citroen are EUR 2,351 mil and 3.61% respectively and EUR 4,518 mil and 4.69% at Hyundai Motor Company on 2017 numbers.

You can see all the company’s data at Volkswagen Group Profile, or you can download a report on the company in the report section.

Volkswagen Group's net debt reached EUR 145,015 mil and accounted for 133% of equity at the end of 2017. The ratio is down 8.88% when compared to the previous year.

Historically, the firm’s net debt to equity reached an all

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Volkswagen Group's net debt reached EUR 145,015 mil and accounted for 133% of equity at the end of 2017. The ratio is down 8.88% when compared to the previous year.

Historically, the firm’s net debt to equity reached an all time high of 229% in 2005 and an all time low of 104% in 2013.

When compared to EBITDA, net debt amounted to 4.03x at the end of the year. The ratio reached an all time high of 8.29 in 2009 and an all time low of 3.57 in 2013.

As far as Volkswagen Group's peers are concerned, Ford Motor Company posted net debt to equity of 389%x and 9.74x when compared to EBITDA at the end of 2017. PSA Peugeot Citroen ended the year 2017 with a net debt at -40.1%x of equity and -1.16x when compared to its EBITDA while PSA Peugeot Citroen had net debt at -40.1%x of equity and -1.16x to EBITDA at the end of the year.

You can see all the company’s data at Volkswagen Group Profile, or you can download a report on the company in the report section.

Volkswagen Group employed 634,396 persons in 2017, up 2.43% when compared to the previous year. Historically, the firm's workforce hit an all time high of 634,396 in 2017 and an all time low of 322,070 in 2001.

Average cost reached

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Volkswagen Group employed 634,396 persons in 2017, up 2.43% when compared to the previous year. Historically, the firm's workforce hit an all time high of 634,396 in 2017 and an all time low of 322,070 in 2001.

Average cost reached USD 4,636 per month per employee per month, 7.23% more than a year ago. This figure was USD 5,038 per month per month some 10 years ago.

As far as Volkswagen Group's peers are concerned, PSA Peugeot Citroen employed some 210,156 people in 2017 while Hyundai Motor Company was operating with 120,000 staff.

You can see all the company’s data at Volkswagen Group Profile, or you can download a report on the company in the report section.

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